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Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus, the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach.
Inflammation - esophagus
Esophagitis is frequently caused by the backflow of acid-containing fluid from the stomach to the esophagus, a condition called gastroesophageal reflux. An autoimmune disorder called eosinophilic esophagitis also causes this condition.
The following increase your risk of esophagitis:
Persons with weakened immune systems due to HIV and certain medications (such as corticosteroids) may develop infections that lead to esophagitis.
Esophageal infection may be due to fungi, yeast (especially Candida infections), or viruses such as herpes or cytomegalovirus.
The infection or irritation may cause the esophagus to become inflamed. Ulcers may form. Symptoms may include:
The doctor may perform the following tests:
Treatment depends on the specific cause. Reflux disease may require medications to reduce acid. Infections will require antibiotics.
The disorders that cause esophagitis usually respond to treatment.
If untreated, esophagitis may cause severe discomfort, and eventual scarring (stricture) of the esophagus. This can cause difficulty swallowing food or medications.
A condition called Barrett's esophagus can develop after years of gastroesophageal reflux. Rarely, Barrett's esophagus may lead to cancer of the esophagus.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of esophagitis.
Orlando R. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 140.